First let us understand what a vehicle tracking device consists of in-order to learn more about how it works.
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The main components of a vehicle tracking device is :
1) GPS Module: The main function of the GPS module is to attain latitude and longitude from the satellite, which is nothing but a location on the map which will be later translated into an address by Google maps, Bing Maps or OSM.
2) GSM Module:
What ever data the tracking device is able to attain, can be location data from the GPS module or any other data from other sensors, it needs a wire less medium to send the data to the server in-order to store, display and analyze. The GSM module is connected with an active SIM card with 3G or 4G in-order to transfer data to the server.
3) GPS Antenna:
Usually the tracking devices are installed under the dashboard of the vehicle and in-order to get good GPS reception it uses an extended and connected GPS antenna which is placed on the dashboard to get a good GPS fix from the satellites.
4) GSM Antenna:
Just like the GPS antenna even the cellular network needs good reception from the tower in-order to process and send data smoothly without any interruption to the server.
Usually vehicle tracking devices are hardwired to a live positive wire battery supply to power on the device, usually when we set an alert for power cutoff which alerts the vehicle owner about the same and during the downtime where the power is cutoff the battery acts as a back power provider, usually lithium ion batteries which give a back up for 3 to 4 hours are used.
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Now that we have discussed all the components of a vehicle tracking device it is easier to under stand how it functions and connect to the vehicle tracking system software. Each of the hardware has its own language of communication which is called GPRS protocol, so each of these devices should report to a common IP address and its respected port where the data strings are parsed for the fleet management software to understand what the data strings actually mean.
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